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EEG (Electroencephalography)

EEG is a non-invasive technique used to record electrical activity in the brain, providing invaluable insights into brain function and neurological disorders.

Applications of EEG

  • Clinical Diagnosis: EEG is widely used in clinical settings to diagnose various neurological disorders such as epilepsy, sleep disorders, and brain injuries. It helps doctors evaluate brain function, detect abnormalities, and determine appropriate treatment plans.

  • Research: EEG is a valuable tool in neuroscience research. Researchers use EEG to study brain activity during various tasks, cognitive processes, and emotional responses. EEG data provides insights into brain functioning and helps advance our understanding of the brain.

  • Brain-Computer Interface (BCI): EEG technology is also used in developing Brain-Computer Interfaces, allowing individuals to control external devices using their brain activity. This technology has promising applications in assistive technology, communication devices, and neuroprosthetics.

Types of EEG Patterns

  • Alpha Waves: Associated with relaxed, wakeful states.

  • Beta Waves: Linked to active, alert mental activity.

  • Theta Waves: Occur during drowsiness or light sleep.

  • Delta Waves: Predominant during deep sleep or unconsciousness.

EEG Procedure

During an EEG procedure, electrodes are attached to specific locations on the scalp using a conductive gel or paste. These electrodes detect the electrical activity in the brain and transmit the signals to an EEG machine for recording and analysis. The procedure is painless and typically lasts between 20 minutes to an hour.

Challenges and Limitations

  • Spatial Resolution: EEG has limited spatial resolution compared to other imaging techniques like fMRI or CT scans.

  • Interpretation: Interpreting EEG data requires expertise and is subject to variability.

  • Artifact Interference: External factors such as muscle movements, eye blinks, and environmental noise can interfere with EEG signals, affecting the accuracy of recordings.